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Surgery Options

Is surgery for neck or back pain necessary? It is reasonable to consider spine surgery if the pain has not diminished after months of non-surgical treatment, if pain does not respond to medication, or if you are unable to complete basic daily activities. Some surgery options are minimally invasive and allow for quick recovery, while other types of surgery are more extensive. Below are some types of surgery performed by Dr. Theofilos.

Anterior Cervical Fusion (ACDF) – A cervical herniated disc can be removed through an anterior approach (through the front of the neck) to relieve spinal cord or nerve root pressure and alleviate corresponding pain, weakness, numbness, and tingling.

Total Disc Replacement – Total or artificial disc replacement is a procedure that aims to maintain the intervertebral disc height while restoring the physiologic motion a person would have with a healthy disc.

Hybrid ACDF/TDR – Hybrid surgery incorporates ACDF and TDR at different levels. The purpose is to combine the advantage in both techniques thus preserving cervical spine motion with shorter surgery and decreased complications.

Transforminal Lumbar Fusion (TLIF) – A transforminal lumbar fusion surgery is designed to stop the motion at a painful vertebral segment, which in turn should decrease pain generated from the joint due to a weak or unstable spine, fractures or scoliosis.


Posterior Lumbar Fusion (PLIF) – A posterior lumbar interbody fusion involves adding bone graft to an area of the spine to cause the bone to grow between the two vertebral elements and thereby alleviate pain.

Microdiscectomy – A microdiscectomy or microdecompression spine surgery removes a small portion of the bone over the nerve root and/or disc material from under the nerve root to relieve neural impingement and provide more room for the nerve to heal.

Posterior Cervical Fusion – A posterior cervical fusion will use a bone graft placed on the backside of the vertebrae. During the healing process, the vertebrae grow together, creating a solid piece of bone to correct fractures, dislocations and deformities.

eXtreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF) – Lateral lumbar interbody fusion is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat back pain generally caused by degenerative disc disease, spondylolisthesis and scoliosis. The procedure is performed through the patient’s side, avoiding the back muscles.